Perlin noise
A type of gradient noise. In its options, apart from the low and high colors, users can set the number of octaves (0 to 10), Omega (0 to 1) and also add turbulence or not.

Octaves: 1 1 10 10
Omega: 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.01
Turbulence: Off On Off Off

Worley noise
This type of noise can be used to simulate stone, water and cell noise.

Pattern: Blob Cell Smudge Mosaic
Distance: Euclidean Euclidean Euclidean Euclidean

Creates an effect on surfaces similar to a marble material.

Octaves: 8 8 8
Omega: 0.5 0.65 0.5
Variation: 1.0 1.0 8.0

Creates a kind of wind effect.

Strenght: 3 6 6 6
Height Octaves: 6 6 0.7 6
Strength Omega: 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Height Omega: 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0

Edge ramp
Applies different colors to edges and their adjacent faces. While edge ramp is a property of the material, the radius and angle properties have to be defined per object in the models tab.

It is specially designed to be applied on metallic surfaces at the anisotropic slot.

Fresnel ramp
Its main purpose is to alter the reflectance with respect to the viewing angle. With the fresnel ramp you can create materials like cloth, velvet, etc.

You can learn more on how to use the fresnel ramp layer to create realistic cloth materials in the Fabric & Velvet tutorial